Fars province is located in the southwest of Iran and approximately one third of its population are nomads that one of their main source of income is to produce handicrafts like carpet. The oldest Fars carpet that has been found is over three hundred years old. However, the oldest document that mention the Fars carpets is the treasury list of Harun al Rashid, the fifth Abbasid Caliph. Two books from 10th century AD indicate the extant of Fars carpets in the past. One is a Written documents presented by Estakhri, the geographer of medieval Islam, and the other is a book titled Hudud Al Alam Al Mashregh El Al Maghreb (the boundaries of the world from the east to the west) from an anonymous writer.
Suitable condition and weather in Fars province lead to the popularity of the place among nomads like Qashqai, Khamseh, Afshar, and Abade tribes that the largest one is Qashqai. Nowadays Qashqai tribes weave the carpets that are known as Fars carpets. This form of carpet weaving, in both style and pattern, is known to be an example of the exquisite nomadic art. Qashqai weavers braid the carpet according to symmetrical knots that are also known as Turkish knots. Although in some exceptional cases, asymmetric knots are used as well.
Fars woofs are mostly in red or blue and are woven on horizontal looms because this way moving them is much easier and since Qashqai tribe are among the few still migrating tribes of Iran, easement of moving is crucial. Generally, the horizontal looms are small because nomads have to finish the carpet in one season so it is finished by the time of immigration.
The most notable feature of a Qashqai Carpet is its coloring, just like the area they live in their carpets are full of color while carpets of other Fars tribes like Khamseh consist of dark colors. The main reason behind such difference is that for a tribe like Khamseh, carpet weaving is a serious source of income and since they need the money they focus on the commercial aspect of carpet weaving producing what the costumers want. However, for Qashqai tribe, carpet weaving is a joy; they have not changed their traditional pattern or coloring.
Generally, the Carpet in Iran has a pattern of an octagonal medallion at the centers and a bergamot in each corner of the carpet. Fars carpets are woven according to a pattern that is known as Dastur. This pattern is divided to two major groups, one that follows the traditional patterns or regular motifs including Moharamat, Afshan, Mahi Darham, Botee and herbal motifs. The other form is patterns with imaginary motifs that include geometrical structure without symmetry. In case of Bakhtiari carpets, the central area is divided into several squares each with a different motif that turns the carpet into a collection of motifs and patterns. Qashqai carpet, like the Bakhtiari carpet is a combination of motifs and pattern most of which are imaginary and asymmetrical.
Every rug is the outcome of weaving wraps and woofs. In mountainous area of Fars like Darab, Eqlid, Abadeh cotton warp and woof are used. Nowadays, Shiraz, Abadeh, and Neyriz are the most famous location to find an authentic Fars carpet with traditional design, traditional material and weavers that know what it means to weave a Fars carpet.