Golestan Province, located in the northeast of Iran and the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, with an area of 20367 km, is the 21st province of the country in terms of size. Golestan has a common border with the provinces of North Khorasan, Semnan, Mazandaran, and the country of Turkmenistan. Golestan has 14 counties and its center is the city of Gorgan. Different ethnic groups live in the Golestan province, majority of them are Turkmen. Turkish, Tabari and Persian languages are common in different parts of the province. The Alborz Mountains cover a large part of the southern and southwest areas of the province, and the Gorgan and Turkmen Plains (Turkmen Sahra) surrounded the north. The Gavkeshan Mountain is the highest point of the province. The climate of Golestan province varies widely in the seasons; the southern and western parts, mountainous and frigid climate are dominated and dry and semi-arid climates, temperate and humid are for north.
Golestan province was one of the oldest, largest and the most developed lands of northwest of Iran, before Muslim conquest of Persia. In the middle of the second millennium BC, this area was the main center of the civilization of Aryan and was known during the Achaemenid period, as Hirkani (Hyrcanian). There are many historical monuments found in these areas, including the remains of Alexander’s wall (dam) approximately 155 km long, which has remained from the Sassanid era. This dam was built to prevent the invasion of the northern tribes. After Muslim conquest of Persia, the Samanid, Buyid and Ziarid ruled the area. The tomb of Qabus Ibn Voshmgir one of the Ziarid Sultans still exists near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan. This area was widely known as Gorgan until the seventh century, but from that time to fourteenth century, it was called the Astarabad.
Golestan province was one of the oldest, largest and the most developed lands of northwest of Iran, before Muslim conquest of Persia. In the middle of the second millennium BC, this area was the main center of the civilization of Aryan and was known during the Achaemenid period, as Hirkani (Hyrcanian).
Golestan province contains various natural and historical attractions and tempts many foreign and domestic tourists to voyage. Caspian Sea shores, Gorgan bay, Miankaleh peninsula, Khalid Nabi shrine and its historical cemetery, hot spring and waterfall of Ziart, Kaboodvall waterfall, Nahkarkhoran forest, Emadieh school of Gorgan , historical bridge of Agh Ghala, Miran castle, Seyyed Gelich Isahn Mosque and school, Gelfeshan Naftlijeh and the Gonbad-e-Qaboos Tower are the attractions of this province. Gonbad-e-Qabus tower has been registered at the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The most important handicrafts of the province are the silk weaving, plaas (kind of ground cloth), Jajim, carpets and rugs of Turkmen, Khorjin, Kilim and needlecraft. The province’s souvenirs mostly include caviar, fish, citrus, kiwi, honey, silk, carpet, rug, Turkmen backrest and Jajim. Native dishes include Chakdormeh (Traditional Turkic rice), Manty, Tomato Ash, mung bean Ash, Ash-e-Heli, Ash-e-kei, Ash-e- Siyah sholeh, Kumeh Lakey Burke (Burke of mushroom), Pusigh, Chafati, Akmak and Potato Burke. Prominent celebrities of province are Fakhreddin Asad Gorgani (Poet), Mirdamad (Philosopher), Mirfendereski (Philosopher) and Magtymguly Pyragy (also known as Ferdowsi of Turkmen Sahra, a poet and spiritual leader).