Hamedan province, with an area of 19,368 square kilometers, is the 22nd province of Iran in terms of area; it is neighboring Zanjan, Qazvin, Lorestan, Markazi, Kurdistan and Kermanshah provinces. Hamedan’s center has the same name and it has nine counties. The language of most of the people is Persian but because of the existance of different ethnic groups, languages like Turkish are also common. The Zagros Mountain ranges cover the province of Hamedan and the highest point of the province is Mount Alvand. Its climate is relatively cold in winter and mild in summer.
The land of Hamedan has long been the place where ancient civilizations were located. It used to be on the way of the caravans between East and Mesopotamia, the existence of the remains of prehistoric artifacts in different parts of it are the proofs which reveal its existence. After the arrival of the Muslim Arabs in Iran, a war broke out near Nahavand, in spite of the death of Muslim Corps’ commander, the Arabs won it. The conquest of Nahavand opened a way for Muslims to capture the Sassanid realm, and therefore, it is called Fath-al-Fotouh which literary means the Victory of Victories. Arab geographers introduced the land of Hamedan as the firmest city of the region and called it Jebal which included the ancient Medes. In 4th century A. H. Hamedan was a large city which was entirely built by the Arabs after its capture. During Ilkhanate dynasty, Hamedan recovered its former significance. After this era, the Jalairid, Timurid, Aq Qoyunlu, Safavid, and Ottoman Empires occupied the city of Hamedan. Nadir Shah drove out Ahmed Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Baghdad, from the area. Some years later, in the beginning of Qajar Era, Agha Mohammad Khan captured Hamedan and destroyed the citadel of the city. During the First World War, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian and the British alternately invaded the land of Hamadan and its other cities.
The province of Hamedan is one of the most prominent provinces of the country because of its rich natural prospects and historical monuments. Baba Tahir, Aref Qazvini and Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna) Tombs, Inscription and Waterfall of Ganjnameh, Ali Sadr Cave (Iran’s only water cave), Lalejin pottery workshops, Alavian dome and the tomb of Esther and Mordechai are only some of the attractions of Hamedan province.
The most important handicrafts of province are pottery and ceramics, carpet weaving, Give-doozi (a kind of shoes), woodcarving, Moj-Bafi, Fur clothing Tanning, leather and leather artifacts and Ajideh Doozi.
The city of Laljin in Hamadan province was registered as Iran’s capital of pottery in 2016.
The souvenirs of the province include honey, almond Gaz, animal oil, Tuyserkan walnut, grape syrup and Basloq of Malayer, walnut halva, pickled cucumber, Noghl and dried mulberry. Some of the local cuisine of the province include different kinds of aush, Ghormeh and Cabbage Abgoosht, Beans and greengage stew.
Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh (Ilkhanid historian and minister), Ayn-al-Qużāt Hamadānī (Mystic, Philosopher, and poet) and Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (Sufi and Poet) are among Hamedan’s most notable figures.