Sistan and Baluchistan, with an area of 181785 km, is located in southeastern Iran, and is the largest province in Iran. The province is bordering the provinces of South Khorasan, Kerman, Hormozgan, Oman Sea, and the countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The province has 19 counties and its center is Zahedan. Sistani and Baluchi are inhabitants of this region and speak Persian language with Sistani dialect and Baluchi language. The province has a warm and dry climate.
According to the mythological history of Iran, Sistan is the birthplace of Rostam, which is a character in the epic masterpiece of Shahnâme written by Ferdowsi. Rostam is the ruler of Sistan, which includes Zabulistan, Bast, Ghazneh and Kabulistan. The natives called this area Zarnak, and after the invasion of the Scythians, the area became Sakestaneh (Land of Scythians) or Sajestan. Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sassanian Dynasty, conquered the Sakestaneh region, and during the conquests of Islam, Yazdird III, after his defeat in Kerman, escaped to Sistan. Later, Sistan became a part of the territory of the Samanid, Ghaznavid and Seljuk. When Safavid came to throne, Shah Ismail I seized it, and after the death of Nader Shah of Afsharid dynasty, the disagreements between Afghanistan and Iran over Sistan led to the intervention of Britain in 1835 and the new determination of the boundary between Iran and Afghanistan.
Baluchistan on the other hand is a land that its names has been recorded in the inscriptions of Darrius of Achaemenid dynasty. In Bisotun and Takht-e-Jamshid we see the name of “Mecca” that is believed to be this region. The Baluches apparently migrated from Kerman to Makran district, at the time of Seljuq invasion of Kerman. Baluchistan was attacked several times from the time of advent of Islam to Qajar era. In Qajar period, Baluchistan which was inside borders of Iran came out of authority of Khanat-e-Kalat (formerly Baluchistan, now Pakistan). The Kalat border with Baluchistan was designated in 1835 and part of Baluchistan joined Pakistan.
The area dates back to more than five thousand years ago. The remains of the early civilizations and Achaemenid rock paintings in Dahan-e Gholaman, Mount Khaje and other scattered hills in the province are its historical attractions. The natural attractions of the region includes wetlands, deserts, miniature mountains, Taftan Summit (the only semi-active volcanoes of Iran), Gelfeshan (mud bubbles), Oman Sea coast, and rivers that are habitat of the short muzzle crocodile (Gando) and are located in the protected areas of Bahukalat. Meanwhile, the Lut desert and the Shahr-i Sokhta (burned city) have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Chabahar Free Zone, beautiful jungles of Hara, pink lake and Machi windmill are other attractions of this province.
The area dates back to more than five thousand years ago and enjoys variety of historic and natural attractions including Achaemenid rock paintings in Dahan-e Gholaman, Mount Khaje, miniature mountains, Taftan Summit (the only semi-active volcanoes of Iran), Gelfeshan (mud bubbles), Oman Sea coast, short muzzle crocodile (Gando), Lut desert and Shahr-i Sokhte.
The province’s handicrafts can include all kinds of traditional jewelry making, musical instruments, Tutan (local boats), Lenj Making (another form of boat), goldsmith, Siah-doozi, mat weaving (Bouria-bafi), embroidery, coin and mirroring, Balochi needlecraft, Parivar-doozi, wall hangings, pottery (Village of Kalporgan) and curtain making. The most important souvenirs in the province are all kinds of tropical fruits, different kind of date, mangoes, bananas, papayas, local olive, Indian white shrimp, lobster and various fish. Local cuisine include Tanoorche kebab, yellow curd, Pekore, Shilanj, Kahli, Halkary bread, Qalifi, Zaboli curd and Baluchi stew, known as Vadap.