The province of Tehran with an area of 13692 km is considered as the 29th province of Iran in terms of area. The capital of the province is the city of Tehran and it neighbors the provinces of Mazandaran, Alborz, Semnan, Markazi and Qom. Tehran is the capital of Iran and the most populated city of the country. The province of Tehran has 16 counties and the most commonly used language is Farsi. Major immigrants are among Azeri and Mazandarani families. The central Alborz Mountains cover the north, with mountains and important summits. Because of its geographic location, Tehran has a considerable diversity of climate, and with decreasing elevation from north to the south, the air temperature and rainfall reduces.
Tehran Province is one of the oldest areas of Iran’s central plateau. The settlement in this area dates back to the pre-Islamic period, the time of Medes. Historically, the most important city in the region was Ray that was near the city of Tehran and is part of the Tehran Province now. Tehran was actually a large village located between Rey and the foothills of Alborz. With the beginning of Safavid dynasty and the neighboring of Immamzadeh Hamzeh -ancestor of Safavid- and the shrine of Abdul-Azim Hosseini, Tehran came to the attention of the Shiite Safavid Rulers. The Safavid king used to stay in Tehran while they came to the Shrine of their ancestor in Ray. Expansion of traveling to Ray convinced Shah Tahmasp Safavid to build watchtowers and fortification for Tehran. During the Afsharid period, the significance of Tehran increased, and then Karim Khan Zand turned it into his center of government for four years, until it was eventually chosen as the capital in Qajar era. Aqa Mohammad Khan, the first Qajar king, named it as the capital calling it “Dar al-Khelafeh”. With the increasing power of the Qajar government, Tehran’s quantitative and qualitative development began and has been continuing to the present.
Tehran was actually a large village located between Rey and the foothills of Alborz. With the beginning of Safavid dynasty and the neighboring of Immamzadeh Hamzeh -ancestor of Safavid- and the shrine of Abdul-Azim Hosseini, Tehran came to the attention of the Shiite Safavid Rulers.
The province of Tehran is full of natural and mountainous attractions. The Ski Resorts of Tochal, Shemshak and Darbandsar, attract winter sports enthusiasts. The Golestan Palace, remains of the Zand and Qajar dynasty, dates back to 440 years ago. This Palace was the house of many Qajar kings and observed great historical events. It has been registered at the UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is one of the most important attractions of the city of Tehran.
A collection of more than 30 diverse museums with valuable collections is built in Tehran. The National Museum with two sections of Ancient Iran and the Islamic Iran is the main museum of Tehran. The Museum of National Treasury and the Carpet Museum are other popular museums of Tehran. Azadi Tower, Tehran Bazaar, Milad Tower Cultural Complex, and Sa’d Abad Museum palace attracts many visitors each year.
The city of Ray has its own history and attractions as well including Abdul Azim Hassani shrine, Tugrul Tower and Cheshme Ali.
Among the various handicrafts of the province, The Art of Enamel Work or Minakari, Jajims, wood products, glass and leather paintings can be named. Native foods are kebab, Dizy (Abgoosht, Meat Stew), Ash-e-Dandani, Ash-e-Zeinolabedin, Bozbash and Dampokhtak (dried broad beans and rice). Zakarya Razi (scientist), Jahan Pahlavan Takhty (wrestler), Fereidoun Moshiri (poet) and Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (linguist) are among the celebrities of Tehran province.