Nain is the name of a county as well as a city in Isfahan Province. It is the biggest county of Isfahan with three distinct sections of Markazi, Anarak and Khur Biabanak. The country has hot desert-like weather with low rain rate. People here are Shiites, but follow different sects of Shiites religion. They speak a subsect of Farsi common in the central area of Iran that is rooted in the ancient language of Iran.
The economy of the area has always been depended on agriculture and handicrafts. However, Nain is very hot and dry area. Water is scarce here, and what is fount is usually salty. Therefore, people of Nain had to plant trees such as pomegranate and pistachio that need less water. There are also wheat and barley. Livestock were kept as well, but only to provide for the locals. The limitations of farming in the area made people to think of other means of income as well. Handicrafts like Aba-Weaving are one of those means. Aba is a long cloak made with the camel wool. The city of Nain is famous for its Aba-Weaving workshops that today act as tourist destination as well. Carpet Weaving is common in region as well.
The old city of Nain was designed considering the nature, weather and topography of the area in a way to be resistant against the attack of enemy; therefore, it has an introverted architecture. The city was compressed with most of the constructs made close to each other. It was made so that the residential area neighbored the public sections like mosque, bazaar, bathhouse, water reservoir and city hall without the people being disturbed by the hassle of them. With the destruction of the old fortification and the expansion of the city, now the historic part of Nain, that is the remnant of the heart of the old city, is all in a small area.
Nain today has two parts of new and old city. People have mostly left the old area for new houses in the modern section of the Nain that has led to the destruction of old part. Muhammadieh neighborhood is the highlight of the city with its location on a hill, and the intriguing Aba-Weaving workshops that are called Sardab by the locals. The neighborhood is one of the oldest parts of the city, where the ancient form of Nain is best seen.
Since Nain was a popular city in past, it had many water reservoirs, castles, caravanserais, bathhouses, mosques, and historic houses that just a few survived the passing of time. The best examples of such attractions are the Balabad caravanserai, Neyestanak caravanserai, Nain bazaar, Narin castle, Ashuragah castle, Shirkouh castle, and Pirnia house.